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  Cindy Williams, Star of ‘Laverne & Shirley,’ Dies at 75
Posted by: IceWizard - 02-01-2023, 03:49 PM - Forum: World News - No Replies

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Cindy Williams,
Star of ‘Laverne & Shirley,’
Dies at 75

Before partnering with Penny Marshall on the ABC comedy,
she had pivotal turns on the big screen in 'American Graffiti'
and 'The Conversation.'

Cindy Williams, the energetic actress who appeared in a pair of Oscar best picture nominees before
starring as the idealistic Shirley Feeney on the beloved ABC sitcom Laverne & Shirley, has died.
She was 75.

Williams died in Los Angeles on Wednesday after a brief illness, her children, Zak and Emily Hudson,
said in a statement released Monday.

“The passing of our kind, hilarious mother, Cindy Williams, has brought us insurmountable sadness
that could never truly be expressed,” the statement said. “Knowing and loving her has been our joy
and privilege. She was one of a kind, beautiful, generous and possessed a brilliant sense of humor and
a glittering spirit that everyone loved.”

After popping up as a pot-smoking hippie in the Maggie Smith-starring Travels With My Aunt (1972),
one of the last films directed by George Cukor, Williams took her first big turn in the spotlight when
she portrayed Laurie, the girlfriend of Ron Howard’s Steve Bolander, in American Graffiti (1973),
directed by George Lucas.

The box office smash was nominated for best picture, as was her follow-up movie, Francis Ford Coppola’s
The Conversation (1974), where she played a woman in danger, or so it seemed. (On Oscar night,
American Graffiti and The Conversation lost out to The Sting and The Godfather Part II, respectively.)

In 1975, Williams and Penny Marshall were writing partners working for $30 a week on a bicentennial
spoof for Coppola’s Zoetrope company when Garry Marshall hired them for an episode of ABC’s Happy Days.

Portraying “fast girls” — Penny thought that meant hookers — recruited by Fonzie (Henry Winkler)
for a double date with Richie Cunningham (Howard), the pair displayed an immediate onscreen chemistry.

“We sort of had telepathy,” Williams said in a 2013 interview for the TV Academy Foundation website
The Interviews. “If we walk into a room together and if there’s something unique in the room, we’ll see
it at the same time and have the same comment about it. We were always just like that.”

Garry Marshall then pitched a comedy that starred the duo to ABC entertainment chief Fred Silverman.
“There are no shows about blue-collar girls on the air,” he recalled in 2000. “He said, ‘It’s on! What’s its name?’
‘I said, Laverne & Shirley.’ ‘Good, I love it!'”

Set in the 1950s like Happy Days, the Paramount Television spinoff started out with the struggling
Laverne DeFazio and Shirley Wilhelmina Feeney, pals from high school, sharing a basement apartment
in Milwaukee and working as bottle cappers for the Schotz brewery.

Laverne & Shirley debuted No. 1 in the ratings on Jan. 26, 1976, and, in its post-Happy Days spot at
8:30 p.m. on Tuesdays, went on to become the highest-rated series for the 1977-78 and 1978-79 seasons.

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Cindy Williams and Penny Marshall in a promotional photo for ‘Laverne & Shirley’

The series lasted eight seasons but wrapped in May 1983 without Williams.

At the end of the seventh season, Williams, married to actor-musician Bill Hudson
(who earlier was married to Goldie Hawn), became pregnant with her first child, Emily.
“I thought I was going to come back and they’d hide [her baby bump] behind benches,
couches, pillows, and that wasn’t it,” she said in 2015 on the Today show.

“When it came time for me to sign my contract for that season, they had me working on
my due date to have my baby. I said, ‘You know, I can’t sign this.’ And it went back and
forth and back and forth, and it just never got worked out. Right after that, [shows] would
build nurseries on sets.”

In 1982, she sued Paramount for $20 million, seeking to get paid for the episodes she
would miss because she was pregnant. After a settlement, she was written out of the series,
and Laverne went at it alone, without her best friend, for the final 20 episodes.

The older of two daughters, Cynthia Jane Williams was born in Van Nuys on Aug. 22, 1947.
Her mother, Frances, was a waitress; her father, Beachard (known as Bill), worked at an
electronics manufacturing company.

She and her family lived in the Dallas area for about nine years — she and her mom had fled
there because her dad was an alcoholic — before they returned to California and bought a
house in the San Fernando Valley when Williams was nearly 11.

Williams acted in plays at Birmingham High School and was voted “funniest female” before
graduating in 1965. (Sally Field, who was nine months older, was a classmate before leaving
to star on ABC’s Gidget.) She then majored in theater at Los Angeles City College and was
best friends with another future actress, Lynne Marie Stewart (Bobbie in American Graffiti and
Miss Yvonne on Pee-wee’s Playhouse).

To make ends meet, Williams worked as a waitress at the International House of Pancakes
and the famed Whisky a Go Go nightclub, where she served drinks to Jim Morrison,
Duke Ellington and Joe Cocker.

Garry Marshall and Fred Roos, who were launching a management company, agreed to represent
her — Marshall called her a “pudgy Barbara Harris” after their first meeting — and she also signed
with the Paul Kohner Agency, which got her a part on the ABC series Room 222 in 1969.

Next, Williams did lots of commercials, appeared on Barefoot in the Park, My World and Welcome
to It and Nanny and the Professor and was a regular on the Gene Kelly-hosted The Funny Side.
She also appeared in films including Jack Nicholson’s Drive, He Said (1971) and
Beware! The Blob (1972), directed by Larry Hagman; her character was eaten by the monster
in a Glendale drainpipe in that one.

Then came the low-budget American Graffiti, where Roos was in charge of casting. She almost
didn’t take the part of head cheerleader Laurie after really wanting to portray the free-spirited
Debbie Dunham (Candy Clark got that role), only agreeing to sign on after taking a call from
Coppola, a producer on the movie.

“I said, ‘This is not going to be fun, I’m going to cry during this whole 28-night shoot,’ and I did,”
she said. “But after two weeks, George Lucas took [the whole cast] into the editing bay, and he
showed us a 20-minute assemblage of the film with music. I remember [castmate] Harrison Ford
standing next to me and saying, ‘This is [bleeping] great.'”

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Cindy Williams with Ron Howard in 1973’s ‘American Graffiti’

Williams was nominated for a BAFTA award for best supporting actress for American Graffiti but
lost out to Ingrid Bergman of Murder on the Orient Express.

On the Gene Hackman-starring The Conversation, she was “surrounded by the best of the best,”
she said. “Francis Coppola loves actors. He would say to the cinematographer, you let your actors
walk through the scene and you watch them and [then you’ll] know where to put the camera.
That’s why he gets these performances out of people.”

She auditioned for Princess Leia on Star Wars (1977) but knew deep down that Lucas wanted a
younger actress, and Carrie Fisher was hired.

Williams first met the Bronx-born Penny Marshall on a double date years earlier during a Liza Minnelli
performance at L.A.’s Ambassador Hotel. They went backstage and met Minnelli and the opening act,
Little Richard, who “blessed” them and said something good was going to happen to them.

Williams said Marshall had to convince her to take the Laverne & Shirley gig after she had decided
to move to Oregon.

The comedy, filmed before an audience of 450 people on Stage 20 on the Paramount lot, was
known for fearless physical comedy not seen since the days of I Love Lucy.

“Lucy was a physical comedienne, and she would be all over the stage, so Desi Arnaz, being the
genius he was, put all of their cameras on these dollies,” Williams noted in a 2021 interview.

“So [on Laverne & Shirley] there are three cameras, you’ve got the stage, as though you are
watching a play, and you have the cameras moving with us on dollies. Usually, [sitcom] cameras
are set in place and stagnant, but our cameras were like Lucille Ball’s cameras.”

She and Marshall never used stunt doubles, and she said the Stuntmen’s Association of
Motion Pictures once named them honorary stuntmen and gave them buckles.

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Cindy Williams and Penny Marshall did all their stunts on ‘Laverne & Shirley’

Williams credited Laverne & Shirley‘s success to the fact that “we made sure the joke was always
on us, we never made fun of anyone else. We also wanted to keep the wolf nipping at our heels,
like how are we going to pay the rent, how are we going to pay the electric bill. So we kept it
grounded in that. We also made sure it was extremely funny to us.”

Despite its popularity, the sitcom never won an Emmy, receiving just one nom, for costume design.

Williams, who enjoyed the company of the stuffed animal she named Boo-Boo Kitty after her
mom’s cat, said her favorite episodes were 1977’s “Guinea Pigs” and the 1980 two-parter
“Murder on the Moose Jaw Express.”

Something she and Marshall were not fond of — having the characters move to Burbank at the
start of season six (1980-81). “We begged Garry not to do it,” she said.

In the season-eight opener, “The Mummy’s Bride,” Shirley reveals that she is marrying an Army
medic named Walter Meeney. That will make her Feeney Meeney, and Lenny (Michael McKean) jokes,
“What’s she gonna call her kids, Miny and Moe?”

Because he’s going to be shipped overseas, their wedding has to take place in a recovery room at
a V.A. hospital in a couple of days. The groom, however, has a rash over 98 percent of his body,
so he’s wrapped head to toe in bandages and can’t say a word during the ceremony (he blinks his “I do”).

On the next episode, Williams’ last, Shirley announces she’s pregnant. On the next one, Laverne
finds a note from Shirley saying her husband has been transferred and she’s left to be with him.

After a couple years away following the birth of her daughter, Williams starred as the mother of
Dweezil Zappa and Moon Unit Zappa’s characters on the 1990 CBS comedy Normal Life and as
another mom on the 1993-94 ABC-NBC sitcom Getting By.

She returned in 1979 for More American Graffiti, with Laurie and Steve now married, and took part
in a game of drunken strip poker with Rodney Dangerfield in Meet Wally Sparks (1997).

Her film résumé also included Roger Corman’s Gassss (1970), The Killing Kind (1973),
Mr. Ricco (1975), The First Nudie Musical (1976), Big Man on Campus (1989), Bingo (1991)
and Stealing Roses (2012).

She also served as a co-producer on the Steve Martin-starring Father of the Bride (1991)
and its 1995 sequel.

A member of The Actors Studio West, Williams appeared on Broadway as Mrs. Tottendale in 2007
in The Drowsy Chaperone, starred in national tours of Grease (as Miss Lynch) and Deathtrap
and had a three-year stint in Menopause: The Musical in Las Vegas.

Her memoir, Shirley, I Jest!: A Storied Life, was published in 2015. Seven years later, she
toured the country in the one-woman show Me, Myself & Shirley, where she shared memories
of her career.

Williams can be seen on the Amazon Prime shortform musical series Sami, which premieres
in April and is produced by Bruce Kimmel.

“I’ve known her since we began at LACC in 1965, have loved her from the moment I laid
eyes on her, and have had so many incredible adventures with her. We were as close as
close can be, from then until now. And I’ve been watching her constantly as we’ve been
editing the series we just did and wrapped only two months ago,” Kimmel said in a statement.

“I’m so grateful to have had her be such an important part of my life for close to 60 years.
I will miss her like crazy, but I’m just so happy we got to work together one final time, and
I can’t wait for the show to air — she was funny, charming and brilliant right up to the end.
I’ve never known anyone like her.”

She and Hudson divorced in 2000. Survivors also include her goddaughter Amanda, daughter
of actor Ed Begley Jr.

Asked in her TV Academy Foundation interview to reveal her proudest accomplishment,
she replied: “It’s being able to deliver a line and hear 450 people laugh out loud.
I can remember just being so happy doing that.”

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  Lisa Loring, the original Wednesday Addams, dies at age 64
Posted by: IceWizard - 02-01-2023, 01:45 PM - Forum: World News - No Replies

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Lisa Loring,
the original Wednesday Addams,
dies at age 64

Loring was just five when she starred in the 1964 TV adaptation of
Charles Addams’ macabre cartoons – a performance that has set
the character’s tone for decades

Loring also played Wednesday Addams in the 1977 television movie
'Halloween With the New Addams Family' and had a recurring role in
the series 'As the World Turns.'

Lisa Loring, the actress who played Wednesday Addams on the classic TV adaptation of The Addams Family,
has died. She was 64.

Loring died Saturday night at Providence St. Joseph Medical Center in Burbank of complications from a stroke
caused by high blood pressure, her daughter Vanessa Foumberg told The Hollywood Reporter.

“She went peacefully with both her daughters [Vanessa and Marianne] holding her hands,” she said.

Loring is best known for her turn as the morbid, pigtailed Wednesday on ABC’s black comedy The Addams Family,
a role she took on in 1964. She played the character for only two years but set the template for live-action
portrayals of Wednesday and was recently praised as an inspiration for Jenna Ortega’s interpretation on the hit
Netflix series Wednesday.

She was born Lisa Ann DeCinces on Feb. 16, 1958, in the Marshall Islands; her parents divorced when she
was very young, and she came to live in Los Angeles with her mother. She was given the stage name Lisa Loring
and started modeling at age 3. Her first television appearance came in 1964 on an episode of the NBC medical
drama Dr. Kildare.

After winning the part of Wednesday in ABC’s, MGM-produced live-action television adaptation of Charles Addams’
New Yorker cartoons, Loring began work on the half-hour comedy series at age 5 and a half, revealing in later
interviews that she “learned to memorize before I could read” in order to say her lines.

At fan conventions and in several interviews, Loring spoke fondly of her time working on The Addams Family.
“It was like a real family — you couldn’t have picked a better cast and crew,” Loring revealed in a 2017 YouTube
interview conducted at the convention Monsterpalooza. “Carolyn Jones, John Astin — Gomez and Morticia — were
like parents to me. They were great.”

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Airing at the same time as CBS’ similarly macabre sitcom The Munsters, The Addams Family ran for two seasons,
a total of 64 episodes. Almost all of the original cast was reunited in 1977 for the NBC telefilm Halloween With
the New Addams Family.

With Loring’s death, Astin is the last surviving member of the original cast of The Addams Family.

Considered a rising talent, Loring found immediate TV work following the end of The Addams Family, and along
with Astin went on to co-star on ABC’s Phyllis Diller-led sitcom The Pruitts of Southampton, playing
Susan “Suzy” Pruitt. Both shows shared an executive producer in David Levy. The Pruitts would last only one
season, however, following poor reviews. In 1966, Loring also made an appearance on an episode of
The Girl From U.N.C.L.E., but her career stalled for a number of years thereafter.

In 1973, Loring was wed for the first time at age 15, marrying her childhood sweetheart Farrell Foumberg.
The following year, she had her first child, but tragedy befell her when her mother Judith died of chronic
alcoholism at age 34.

Loring returned to acting with Halloween With the New Addams Family and scored appearances on popular
network shows Fantasy Island and Barnaby Jones. In the early 1980s, she had a recurring part in CBS soap
As the World Turns, playing Cricket Montgomery.

[Image: 8mzFemY.png]
Lisa Loring at an expo in 2015 in New Jersey.
Photograph: Bobby Bank/Getty Images

With her television career winding down, Loring appeared in a series of slasher pics in the late 1980s.
She starred in Blood Frenzy and Savage Harbor (both in 1987) and Iced (1988), but the push into features
was short-lived, and a troubled personal life, including a battle with heroin, effectively ended her acting career.

Loring’s first marriage to Foumberg ended in 1974. She then married Search for Tomorrow actor
Doug Stevenson in 1981, with that relationship ending in divorce two years later. In 1987, she married
adult film star Jerry Butler, with her new husband committed to quitting pornography. However, Butler’s
continued appearances in adult films, in secret without Loring’s knowledge, proved a great strain on the
marriage, and they divorced in 1992. She married Graham Rich in 2003 and divorced him in 2014.

In addition to her daughters,
survivors include her grandchildren,
Emiliana and Charles.

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  ICE Arrests Double in 2022
Posted by: IceWizard - 01-30-2023, 02:41 PM - Forum: World News - Replies (1)

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ICE Arrests Double in 2022;
Thousands with Multiple Convictions, Terrorists, Gang Members

Arrests of illegal immigrants inside the United States nearly doubled last year over 2021 and
tens of thousands had serious criminal histories that include multiple charges and convictions,
according to a recently published Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) report.
The 80-page document, which contains fiscal year 2022 figures, helps illustrate the devastating
impact of the Biden administration’s reckless open border policies which have allowed record-breaking
numbers of migrants into the country with minimal or no vetting. This has made ICE’s task
overwhelming as the Homeland Security agency responsible for enforcing immigration laws to
preserve national security and public safety.

In 2022 ICE’s Enforcement and Removal Operations (ERO) apprehended 142,750 illegal aliens in
the U.S., nearly doubling the number of arrests it made in 2021, government figures included in the
report show. Over 46,000 had a criminal history and an average of 4.3 charges and convictions,
including more than 20,000 charges or convictions for assault, 5,500 for weapons crimes, 1,500 for
homicide-related offenses, and 1,100 for kidnapping. The agency also removed 2,667 gang members
last year, 55 terrorists, seven human rights violators and 74 foreign fugitives wanted by their government
for serious crimes such as homicide, rape, terrorism, and kidnapping. In a press release announcing
the year-end report ICE writes that the document showcases how the agency has responded to
“increasingly complex transnational security threats.”

The language downplays the magnitude of the epic illegal immigration crisis that is gripping the nation
and appears to be worsening. Fiscal year 2022 was a record-breaker for illegal immigration along the
Mexican border. Besides arresting 2.4 million migrants (up from 1.73 million in 2021), Border Patrol agents
apprehended hundreds of gang members—mostly from the famously violent Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13)—and
dozens of people on the national terrorist watchlist. Federal agents also confiscated thousands of pounds
of drugs, mainly methamphetamine. The alarming stats, released a few months ago, depict a chaotic
Mexican border region rife with lawlessness that is inevitably seeping north. Keep in mind, the recently
released ICE figures include those already inside the U.S., probably living in unsuspecting communities
throughout the nation. ICE Acting Director Tae Johnson calls it “complex cross-border and domestic threats.”

The agency also conducted 72,177 removals last year to more than 150 countries worldwide, approximately
half of them on charter flights. This includes 256 private, American taxpayer-funded flights to Guatemala,
220 to Honduras, 125 to Haiti and 120 to El Salvador. “Removed noncitizens had a total of 183,251 charges
and convictions associated with them, for an average of 4.2 charges and convictions per person,” the report
states. This includes 17,336 charges or convictions for assault, 7,370 for sex offenses and sexual assault,
4,711 for weapons crimes, 1,315 for homicide-related offenses, and 953 for kidnapping.
“Removal management is a complex process that requires careful planning and coordination with a wide
range of domestic and foreign partners and utilizes significant ERO resources,” the report says. “After a
noncitizen receives a final order of removal and ERO has coordinated with necessary partners, ICE arranges
their removal via a chartered flight, commercial flight, or land transport (for removals to a contiguous country).”

Last year ERO also issued 78,829 detainers for illegal immigrants arrested by local police for state crimes.
The offenses include 26,186 assaults, 8,450 sex crimes, 2,934 robberies, 1,911 kidnappings and 1,751 homicides.
The year-end report also reveals that an ICE subcomponent known as Homeland Security Investigations (HSI)
conducted over 36,000 arrests and identified or assisted 1,170 victims of child exploitation as well as 765 victims
of human trafficking. The division also set a record for seized currency and assets of more than $5 billion,
an increase of about $4 billion from the previous year. HSI also seized 330 firearms, 43,466 rounds of
ammunition and 92,055 pounds of narcotics from Mexican drug cartels, which are officially called
Transnational Criminal Organization (TCO) by the U.S. government.

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  Tom Verlaine, Singer and Guitarist of Punk Legends Television, Dead at 73
Posted by: IceWizard - 01-30-2023, 12:17 PM - Forum: World News - No Replies

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Tom Verlaine,
Singer and Guitarist of Punk Legends Television,
Dead at 73

Emerging out of the CBGB era, Verlaine influenced the sound
and songwriting of punk and what followed with
1977 masterpiece Marquee Moon

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Tom Verlaine of Television performs on stage at Hammersmith
Odeon, London, 28 May 1977.

TOM VERLAINE, SINGER and guitarist for punk legends Television who crafted the band’s 1977
masterpiece Marquee Moon, has died at the age of 73.

Jesse Paris Smith, the daughter of Patti Smith, confirmed Verlaine’s death following a “brief illness” to
Rolling Stone on Saturday. “He died peacefully in New York City, surrounded by close friends.
His vision and his imagination will be missed
,” Smith wrote.

This is a time when all seemed possible,” Patti Smith wrote in a tribute on Instagram, which included
a photo of her and Verlaine. “Farewell Tom, aloft the Omega.

Born Thomas Miller, Verlaine (who adopted his last name from the French poet Paul Verlaine), was
high school classmates with fellow punk icon Richard Hell, with whom he’d later form his earliest bands.
Arriving in Manhattan’s Lower East Side at the dawn of punk, Verlaine and Hell first teamed up for the
short-lived act Neon Boys before co-founding Television in 1973 alongside guitarist Richard Lloyd.

Verlaine and Television honed their sound as one of the premier acts at legendary punk clubs like
CBGB — establishing one of the earliest residencies at that venue — and Max’s Kansas City.
Patti Smith — who once likened Verlaine’s guitar sound to “a thousand bluebirds screaming” — was
in the audience for one of Television’s early shows in 1974, and split the bill with Television when
the Patti Smith Group made their CBGB debut the following year.

Hell would soon leave Television to join fellow punk act the Heartbreakers. With Verlaine and Lloyd
taking the reins, the duo developed a guitar sound that merged punk riffs with jazz interplay. After
making their recorded debut with the 1975 single “Little Johnny Jewel,” Television released what was
their masterpiece — and one of the greatest albums of the punk era — Marquee Moon, the centerpiece
of which was the album’s twisty, mesmerizing title track. (The album was, as Rolling Stone noted in
the review, “the most interesting and audacious” of a series of 1977 releases from CBGB bands like
Blondie and the Ramones, but “also the most unsettling.”)

When the members of Television materialized in New York, at the dawn of punk, they played an
incongruous, soaring amalgam of genres: the noirish howl of the Velvet Underground, brainy art
rock, the double-helix guitar sculpture of Quicksilver Messenger Service
,” Rolling Stone wrote of
Marquee Moon, Number 107 on our list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time.

As exhilarating in its lyrical ambitions as the Ramones’ debut was in its brutal simplicity,
Marquee Moon still amazes
,” Rolling Stone wrote. “‘Friction,’ ‘Venus,’ and the mighty title track are
jagged, desperate, and beautiful all at once. As for punk credentials, don’t forget the cryptic electricity
and strangled existentialism of guitarist Tom Verlaine’s voice and songwriting

Television’s classic lineup would only release one more album during the Seventies, 1978’s Adventure,
before Verlaine embarked on his solo career. As Patti Smith wrote, Verlaine showcased on his albums
his angular lyricism and pointed lyrical asides, a sly wit, and an ability to shake each string to its
truest emotion
.” (The classic Television lineup of Verlaine, Lloyd, bassist Fred Smith,
and drummer Billy Ficca reunited for one last album — 1992’s Television.)

In 1979, Verlaine released his self-titled solo album, which included the song “Kingdom Come,”
recorded a year later by David Bowie for that icon’s 1980 LP Scary Monsters & Super Freaks.
As a solo artist, Verlaine remained prolific over the next few decades, seamlessly moving from
post-punk explorations to entirely instrumental EPs, and silent film scores to collaborations with
Smith and other former CBGB denizens.

Tom Verlaine once complained that he’d never written about two of the strongest dreams in his
life, ‘because it’s hard to get across the language of dreams.’
That may be so, but Verlaine still
manages to come closer to solving that problem than just about anyone else in his medium,”
Rolling Stone wrote of Verlaine’s 1982 solo LP, Words From the Front. “As throughout his body
of work, there’s something so inspired yet effortless about Verlaine’s songs that you have to
wonder if he’s writing them … well, in his sleep.

In a 1988 interview with Rolling Stone, U2’s the Edge cited Verlaine as one of his chief influences.
I think what I took from Verlaine was not really his style but the fact that he did something no
one else had done
,” he said. “And I liked that; I thought that was valuable.”

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  Texas just made it easier for young people to carry guns
Posted by: IceWizard - 01-30-2023, 12:44 AM - Forum: World News - No Replies

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Texas just made it easier for
young people to carry guns

The policy change follows a federal judge's August decision
declaring Texas' handgun age restriction unconstitutional.

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A federal judge's recent decision prompted the policy change.
Cavan Images/Getty Images/Cavan Images RF

It just got even easier for young people to carry a gun in Texas. The Texas Department of Public Safety
will no longer enforce a state law prohibiting adults ages 18 to 20 from carrying handguns in public,
the Dallas Morning News' Allie Morris reported Friday.

DPS announced the policy change in a Jan. 10 memo sent to agency officers, Morris reported. The
decision comes after a federal judge declared a Texas state law preventing 18 to 20 year olds from
carrying handguns unconstitutional in August.   

The judge's court order technically applies only to Texas DPS officers and local law enforcement in
Fannin, Grayson and Parker Counties in North Texas. However, legal experts told the Dallas Morning News
that the order may influence how local cops in other counties across Texas enforce the age restriction law. 

“There’s only so much law enforcement that can be undertaken,” Seth Chandler, a professor of law at
University of Houston Law Center, told the Dallas Morning News. “Given a choice between a law that’s
clearly constitutional… and a law whose constitutionality is in doubt, they might choose to enforce the
one that is clearer,” Chandler added.

Fort Worth Federal District Judge Mark Pittman sided with a Nevada-based gun rights group that argued
that Texas' handgun age limits violated the second amendment in an August court order. “Based on
the Second Amendment’s text, as informed by Founding-Era history and tradition, the Court concludes
that the Second Amendment protects against this prohibition," Pittman said in the order. 

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  A Fictitious Story?
Posted by: IceWizard - 01-29-2023, 08:37 PM - Forum: The Lounge - Replies (3)

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  A comet not seen in 50,000 years is coming
Posted by: IceWizard - 01-21-2023, 12:31 AM - Forum: World News - Replies (1)

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Rare green comet makes closest approach to the sun

The comet C/2022 E3 (ZTF) will be at its closest to the sun since the
last ice age before it swings past Earth in February.

This may very well be the last time that C/2022 E3 comes our way again.

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Typically, during the course of a year about a dozen comets will come within the range of
amateur telescopes. Most quietly come and go with little fanfare,
but some are particularly noteworthy.

During the upcoming weeks, a newly-discovered comet will be making a relatively close
approach to the Earth. On Feb. 1, comet C/2022 E3 (ZTF) will pass to within 28 million miles
(42 million km) of our planet, its first approach in 50,000 years. While this will no doubt
entice many skywatchers to attempt to view the comet, whether or not one will actually
be able to see it will depend on a variety of factors including location and light pollution
from both natural and artificial sources.

But don't be dismayed! Even if you don't have the right gear or conditions to see comet
C/2022 E3 (ZTF), the Virtual Telescope Project will be hosting a free livestream of the
comet beginning at 11:00 p.m. EST on Jan. 12 (0400 GMT on Jan. 13). You can watch
the live webcast courtesy of the project's website(opens in new tab)
or on its YouTube channel(opens in new tab).

Discovery and history

On March 2, 2022 astronomers Frank Masci and Bryce Bolin using the Zwicky Transient Facility
(ZTF) at the Palomar Observatory in Southern California, came across an object which they
initially identified as an asteroid. It appeared very dim — it was estimated at magnitude
+17.3 — or nearly 25,000 times fainter than stars at the threshold of detectability using just
the human eye. Subsequent observations revealed that this star-like object possessed a very
tightly condensed coma, indicating that it was in fact, a comet. It was the third such object
discovered in the fifth half-month (A, B, C, D, E) of the year, so it received the designation
C/2022 E3 (ZTF). At the time, the comet was situated 399 million miles (643 million km)
from the sun, or just inside the orbit of the planet Jupiter.

After enough observations were gathered to compute an orbit, astronomers determined
C/2022 E3 to have an orbital period of roughly 50,000 years. Its last passage through the
inner solar system apparently came during the Upper Paleolithic or Old Stone Age. If we
take these calculations at face value, then the last people to look up and witness this visitor
from the depths of the outer solar system, were likely very early Homo sapiens or Neanderthals.

But this may very well be the last time that C/2022 E3 comes our way again. The latest
orbital elements suggest that the comet is currently traveling on an orbital path with an
eccentricity of 1.00027, or in other words, a parabolic orbit. Such an orbit is not closed,
so after it sweeps around the sun C/2022 E3 will move back out into deep space, never
to return again. So, this will be the comet's last time to "perform" for us. We know that
comets are composed primarily of frozen gases that are heated as they approach the sun
and made to glow by the sun's light.

We call this cloud of gas the head or coma.

As the gases warm and expand, particles of dust that were embedded in the comet's nucleus
are also released into space. The solar wind blows this material out into an appendage we call
the tail. To observers of antiquity, comets resembled a stellar head trailed by long hair, so they
called comets, "hairy stars."

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Comet C/2022 E3 ZTF photographed from Rome, Italy on Sept. 12, 2022.
(Image credit: Gianluca Masi)

Bright among "common" comets

Comets can be broken down into two basic categories:

Bright comets — the kind that can excite those of us without binoculars
or telescopes — appear on average perhaps two or three times every 15 to 20 years.
The last such comet to do that was comet NEOWISE (C/2020 F3) in July 2020.

Then there are the common comets, of which most are only visible either
with good binoculars or a telescope. The vast majority of comets fall into this
category, but C/2022 E3 (ZTF) may end up ranking as exceptionally bright so far
as most common comets go, since for a short while it may hover right at the
cusp of naked-eye visibility (for those fortunate enough to be blessed with dark,
non-light polluted night skies).

For a comet to become readily visible without optical aid, it usually needs to approach
closer to the sun than the Earth (92.95 million miles or 149.56 million km). But at
perihelion (its closest approach to the sun) on January 12th, C/2022 E3 will get no
closer than 103.4 million miles (166.4 million km). It will then begin to move away from
the sun. Most comets, however, continue to remain quite active for a few weeks after
passing the sun and this will be good so far as the comet's visibility for us is concerned.

In fact, during the few weeks following perihelion, the orbital geometry between the
comet and the Earth has the distance between the two rapidly shrink. That distance will
decrease by nearly 40 million miles (64 million km) between Jan. 12 and Feb. 1. As a
result, the anticipated increase in the comet's brightness during that timeframe is
expected to correspondingly increase, perhaps more than five-fold.

Closest approach to Earth (perigee) will come at 1:11 p.m. EST on Feb. 1 at a distance
of 28,390,710 miles (42,471,730 km).

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Comet C/2022 E3 ZTF seen on Dec. 22, 2022.
(Image credit: Edu INAF/Wikimedia Commons)

Where to find it and viewing prospects

Right now, C/2022 E3 is a predawn object, located in the constellation of Corona Borealis
at a declination near +34°; it rises in the northeast shortly after midnight. On Jan. 12, the
date of its closest approach to the sun, the comet will have shifted several degrees to the
northwest. From then onward, its movement against the background stars will progressively
increase westward as it approaches the Earth.

The comet will move into northern Boötes on the 14th, and for most mid-northern latitude
locations, it will become circumpolar (remaining above the horizon at all times) by the 20th.

On the nights of Jan. 26 and Jan. 27, it can be conveniently found passing several degrees
to the east of the bowl of the Little Dipper. On the evening of Jan. 27, it will be 3.5° to the
upper right of orange Kochab, the brightest of the two outer stars in the bowl. On the
evening of Feb. 1, when C/2022 E3 (ZTF) is passing closest to Earth, it will be within the
boundaries of the vague and dim constellation of Camelopardalis. By Feb. 5, it will pass
within a couple of degrees to the west of the brilliant yellow-white star Capella and the
next night it will be within the triangle that makes up "The Kids" asterism in Auriga and
will be located almost directly overhead at around 8 p.m. local standard time.

A number of different predictions have been made regarding the brightness of C/2022 E3 (ZTF)
as it passes closest to Earth at the start of February. I believe, based on observations of
C/2022 E3 through early January, that the forecasts of Japanese comet expert Seiichi Yoshida
and Dutch comet expert Gideon Van Buitenen, will be close to the truth, indicating a magnitude
of no fainter than +7.5 during early January and peaking near +5 by the Feb. 1 perigee.

Assuming that its brightening trend remains on target, the comet should become faintly visible
with the unaided eye by the third week of January.

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A NASA image showing the path of comet C/2022 E3 ZTF across the January sky
for the Northern Hemisphere.
(Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech)

Keep your expectations low

But as compelling as this all may sound; I now must temper any excitement by providing
a very important disclaimer.

Later this month, many people with binoculars and small telescopes will no doubt attempt
to follow the path of C/2022 E3 across the night sky. But actually seeing it will strongly
depend on your observing site. From locations that are plagued by light pollution, I'll bet
that sighting this comet is going to prove to be a rather difficult task. And even for those
who are blessed with dark and starry skies, finding the comet could prove to be a bit of a
challenge. This is because as the comet gets closer to Earth it will become rather large in
angular size — perhaps appearing nearly as large as the moon by the start of February — as
well as appearing rather diffuse.

Indeed, many with little observing experience will sharply question the predictions for a
fifth or sixth magnitude object. But remember, you're not looking for a sharp star-like object,
but rather something which is spreading its light out over a comparatively large area.

In fact, under a completely dark sky, free of light pollution, perhaps the best instruments
for locating the comet will be your own two eyes, especially if you use averted vision.

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Celestial deception!

Recent photographs have shown the comet displaying a distinct greenish color and sprouting
two tails, one of which appears impressively long. Sadly, such long-exposure images tend to
be quite deceptive. For one thing they bring out colors that are not readily evident to the eye.
As to why the comet's head appears green is likely due to a molecule made from two carbon
atoms bonded together, called dicarbon. This unusual chemical process is confined chiefly
around the comet's head, not its tail.

Comets generally throw off two types of tails; tails composed primarily of gas, and tails
composed primarily of dust. Dust tails are far brighter and more spectacular to the eye
than gas tails, because dust is a very effective reflector of sunlight. The most spectacular
comets are dusty and can produce long, bright tails making them awesome and impressive
celestial spectacles.

Gas tails on the other hand appear much fainter and glow with a bluish hue. The gas is
activated by the ultraviolet rays of the sun, making the tail glow in much the same way
that black light causes phosphorescent paint to light up.

Unfortunately, gas tails produced by most comets, appear long, stringy thin, and quite faint;
impressive in photographs but underwhelming visually. And that's what we're currently seeing
with C/2022 E3. The comet is also shedding a brighter dust tail, but at this moment it's
rather short and stubby.

So, most who ultimately locate C/2022 E3 in their binoculars or telescopes will, I believe,
typically describe it as a nearly circular cloud, appearing noticeably brighter and more
condensed near the center. Some might also detect its dust tail appearing as a bit of an
elongation of the comet's coma, but hardly the kind of tail or appendage exhibited by
other larger and brighter comets.

That darn moon!

There is one other factor that will affect whatever views you might get of the comet and
that will be the moon.

From now until about Jan. 15, its bright light will hinder your views of the comet in the
early morning sky, although thereafter it will slim down to a waning crescent and become
progressively less of a hindrance. It will arrive at new phase on Jan. 21. A few days later
it will reappear in the western evening sky as just a thin crescent, but by Jan. 28, it will
again be lighting up the sky during the first part of the night and seriously interfering with
observations of the comet — and just when it is attaining its peak brightness. The moon
will set later in the night, leaving the sky dark during the predawn hours, but as it
approaches full phase on Feb. 5, the amount of time between moonset and the first light
of dawn will get noticeably shorter.

After full moon, dark sky opportunities open up in the evening sky. From mid-northern
latitudes on Feb. 7, there will be about a half-hour window of darkness between the end
of evening twilight and moonrise. Three nights later, C/2022 E3 will be visible from the
end of evening twilight until about 11 p.m. without any lunar interference. At nightfall it
will sit less than 2° to the upper left of bright Mars and will stand 75° above the
south-southeast horizon, and probably hover at around +6.5 magnitude.

If you want to take a look at C/2022 E3 ZTF and don't have everything you need, be sure
to peruse our guides for the best binoculars and the best telescopes to view the comet
or anything else in the sky. For capturing the best comet images you can, we have
recommendations for the best cameras for astrophotography and best lenses for

Happy comet hunting!

Editor's Note:

If you photograph comet C/2022 E3 (ZTF), and would like to share
it with Space.com's readers, send your photo(s), comments,
and your name and location to [email protected]

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  Bachman–Turner Overdrive Drummer Robbie Bachman Dead at 69
Posted by: IceWizard - 01-20-2023, 06:48 PM - Forum: World News - No Replies

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Bachman–Turner Overdrive Drummer Robbie Bachman
Dead at 69

"The pounding beat behind BTO," Bachman played on the hits
"Takin' Care of Business" and "You Ain't Seen Nothing Yet

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Drummer Robbie Bachman from Canadian group Bachman-Turner Overdrive

ROBBIE BACHMAN, THE drummer for Bachman–Turner Overdrive who powered the band’s
biggest hits including “You Ain’t Seen Nothing Yet” and “Takin’ Care of Business,” has died.
He was 69.

Randy Bachman, the drummer’s brother and bandmate, confirmed the news on Twitter
Thursday night. “Another sad departure,” he wrote. “The pounding beat behind BTO, my
little brother Robbie has joined Mum, Dad & brother Gary on the other side. Maybe Jeff Beck
needs a drummer! He was an integral cog in our rock ‘n’ roll machine and we rocked the
world together.” Further details surrounding Robbie’s death have not yet been revealed.

Robbie and Randy began playing music together as kids while growing up in Winnipeg, Canada.
Eventually, guitarist Randy asked Robbie to become the drummer for his band Brave Belt,
which he had formed with musician Chad Allan, Randy Bachman’s former bandmate in the
Guess Who. Together, the band recorded two albums released in the early Seventies before
eventually adding middle brother Tim Bachman on rhythm guitar and bassist C. Fred Turner,
and changing their name to Bachman–Turner Overdrive.

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While their first self-titled album as Bachman–Turner Overdrive in 1973 wasn’t a huge hit upon
release – though it did boast the gem “Hold Back the Water,” featuring a rare co-writing credit
for Robbie – they quickly found their real success with their second album later that same year.
The LP, Bachman-Turner Overdrive II, featured their most famous song, “Takin’ Care of Business,”
as well as the hit “Let It Ride.” Not Fragile followed in 1974, and with it another hit,
“You Ain’t Seen Nothing Yet.”

The group continued to make music throughout the mid-Seventies, releasing a handful of albums,
before Randy Bachman exited the band in 1977 following the release of Freeways, leaving Robbie
as the lone Bachman still in the Overdrive.

BTO briefly disbanded in 1979, but by 1983, the band reunited with Randy and Tim Bachman
returning, though without Robbie; BTO’s 1984 self-titled semi-reunion album is the lone album
by the band to not feature Robbie on drums.

However, Robbie would later rejoin Bachman-Turner Overdrive in 1988, and when Randy once
again left the band in 1991, Robbie continued on with “BTO” – the band’s legally agreed upon
name when Randy wasn’t involved – through 2005. When Randy revived Bachman-Turner Overdrive
in 2009, it was once again without his younger brother.

In 2014, Bachman–Turner Overdrive were inducted into the Canadian Music Hall of Fame.

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  David Crosby, Iconoclastic Rocker, Dead at 81
Posted by: IceWizard - 01-20-2023, 12:10 PM - Forum: World News - Replies (1)

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David Crosby, Iconoclastic Rocker,
Dead at 81

Croz was inducted into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame as a member
of both the Byrds and Crosby, Stills, and Nash

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David Crosby of Crosby, Stills, and Nash in Amsterdam in 1976

DAVID CROSBY, THE singer, songwriter, and guitarist who helped shape the sound of Sixties rock
and beyond, died Wednesday night at the age of 81. A source close to Crosby confirmed the musician’s
death to Rolling Stone, but did not disclose a cause.

Crosby was a founding member of the Byrds, playing guitar and contributing harmony vocals to their
most enduring songs, including “Eight Miles High,” “So You Want to Be a Rock ‘n’ Roll Star,” and
“Turn! Turn! Turn!” Shortly after being forced out of the group due to personality conflicts with frontman
Roger McGuinn, he formed the supergroup Crosby, Stills, and Nash with Buffalo Springfield’s Stephen Stills
and Graham Nash of the Hollies. The trio — which became a quartet in 1969 when Neil Young joined
their ranks — played a major role in the development of folk rock, country rock, and the emergent
“California sound” that dominated rock radio throughout the mid-Seventies. Croz wrote many of their
most beloved tunes, including “Almost Cut My Hair,” “Long Time Gone,” and “Déjà Vu.”

“It is with a deep and profound sadness that I learned that my friend David Crosby has passed,” Crosby’s
former bandmate Nash wrote in a statement. “I know people tend to focus on how volatile our relationship
has been at times, but what has always mattered to David and me more than anything was the pure joy
of the music we created together, the sound we discovered with one another, and the deep friendship we
shared over all these many long years.”

“He was without question a giant of a musician, and his harmonic sensibilities were nothing short of genius,”
Stills remembered in a message to Rolling Stone. “The glue that held us together as our vocals soared,
like Icarus, towards the sun. I am deeply saddened at his passing and shall miss him beyond measure.”

“I’m heartbroken to hear about David Crosby,” Brian Wilson wrote. “David was an unbelievable talent — such
a great singer and songwriter. And a wonderful person. I just am at a loss for words.”

While Crosby’s success continued in the 1970s and into the Eighties, his personal life was marred by heavy
drug use, which wreaked havoc on his career and led to a short jail sentence in 1985. Yet he recovered and
continued making music and touring for another three decades. “I have no idea how I’m alive and
Jimi [Hendrix] isn’t and Janis [Joplin] isn’t and all my other friends,” he told Rolling Stone in 2014, years
after he’d cleaned up. “I have no idea why me, but I got lucky.”

Crosby was born in Los Angeles in 1941. His father, Floyd Crosby, was an Academy Award-winning
cinematographer. David briefly attended Santa Barbara City College, but dropped out to pursue music.
In 1964, he joined a band called the Jet Set, consisting of McGuinn and Gene Clark. They changed their
name to the Beefeaters, and then the Byrds. Crosby’s gorgeous harmonizing, heard on hits like the
Bob Dylan cover “Mr. Tambourine Man” and “Turn! Turn! Turn!,” was an essential component in the
Byrds’ folk-rock sound.

By 1967, tensions within the band had mounted to a breaking point and Crosby left. “Roger and Chris [Hillman]
drove up in a pair of Porsches and said that I was crazy, impossible to work with, an egomaniac,” Crosby told
Rolling Stone in 1970. “All of which is partly true, I’m sure, sometimes — that I sang shitty, wrote terrible
songs, made horrible sounds, and that they would do much better without me. Now, I’m sure that in the
heat of the moment they probably exaggerated what they thought. But that’s what they said. I took it
rather much to heart. I just say, ‘OK. Kinda wasteful, but OK.’ But it was a drag.”

Just months after he left the Byrds, Croz met up with Stills and Nash at Joni Mitchell’s house and discovered
their incredible vocal blend. The first song the trio sang together was “You Don’t Have to Cry.” “They got to
the end of it,” Nash recalled in 2020. “And I looked at Stephen and I said, ‘That’s an incredible song,
Stephen. That’s really a beautiful song. Do me a favor and sing it one more time.’ And they looked at
each other and shrugged, and they sang it one more time. They got to the end of it. And I said, ‘OK, all
right, I’m English. Forget it. Do it one more time, please. One more time.’ In those three playings of that
song, I had learned my harmony. I’d learned the words. I learned how Crosby was breathing. I learned
Stephen’s body language about when he was going to start a line or end a line or put emphasis on
particular words. When we sang that third time, my life changed.”

The trio went into the studio a few months later to record their debut LP. Crosby contributed the song
“Long Time Gone.” “I wrote that right after they assassinated Bobby Kennedy,” Crosby told Rolling Stone
in 2008. “It was a result of losing him, of losing John Kennedy and Martin Luther King. I started to feel
overwhelmed. It seemed as if it was ballot by bullet. It seemed as if it didn’t matter how good a person
we could find to put up as an inspiration and a leader for the good, that somehow the other side would
triumph by simply gunning them down.”

He also penned the tender love ballad “Guinevere.” “That is a very unusual song, it’s in a very strange
tuning with strange time signatures,” Crosby said. “It’s about three women that I loved. One of whom
was Christine Hinton, the girl who got killed who was my girlfriend, and one of whom was Joni Mitchell,
and the other one is somebody that I can’t tell. It might be my best song.”

The album was an enormous success, and they added Neil Young into the mix when they took it on tour
in the summer of 1969.  The quartet played their second gig at Woodstock, in front of nearly 500,000 fans.
“It’s significant to remember that amazing feeling that prevailed, a very encouraging thing about
human beings,” Crosby wrote in his revealing 1990 memoir, Long Time Gone. “We haven’t managed to
do it before or since, but for that one moment we did something that tells you what’s possible with
human beings. For three days there was a very good feeling among half a million people.… Woodstock
was a time where there was a prevailing feeling of harmony.”

The harmony continued in 1970 when CSNY released Déjà Vu, which sold 7 million copies and produced
the hit singles “Woodstock,” “Teach Your Children,” and “Our House.” Crosby later said, “I think when
the Beatles bomb blew apart, we were the best band in the world.”

The good times wouldn’t last long. In the summer of 1970, near the pinnacle of their popularity, the
group went on indefinite hiatus. “Stephen always felt that Nash and I were resentful or trying to
obstruct him,” Crosby wrote in Long Time Gone. “Nash and I always felt that Stephen was overbearing.
I felt that he didn’t give us credit where it was due.”

Crosby recorded his solo debut, If I Could Only Remember My Name, in 1971, backed by Nash,
members of the Grateful Dead and Jefferson Airplane, and Joni Mitchell (who he was romantically
involved with for a time, and who famously compared Crosby’s walrus-mustache look to Yosemite Sam).
Though critically savaged at the time, the languid, meditative album later gained a cult following,
with its influence heard in the contemporary neo-folk of Fleet Foxes and Grizzly Bear. In 1977,
Crosby, Stills, and Nash regrouped for the quadruple-platinum CSN. In 1979, they performed at
the anti-nuclear benefit concerts sponsored by Musicians United for Safe Energy.

Daylight Again was another success, in 1982, producing the hits “Wasted on the Way” and
“Southern Cross.” During these years, Crosby was a frequent voice on records by Grace Slick and
Paul Kantner of Jefferson Starship, Hot Tuna, and Phil Collins (including the hit “Another Day in Paradise”).

By the early Eighties, though, his drug abuse was having a ruinous impact. In 1985, he was sentenced
to prison for nine months after leaving the drug rehabilitation program he was allowed to enter
instead of serving a five-year prison sentence for possessing cocaine and carrying a gun. He appeared
with Stills, Nash, and Young at Live Aid while out on appeal bond. Crosby emerged from prison in 1986
newly clean, and married his longtime girlfriend, Jan Dance, in 1987.

He received a liver transplant in 1994, and recorded another album with CSN, the commercially unsuccessful
After the Storm. During the Nineties, Crosby gained more attention for a unique act of celebrity generosity
when he became the sperm donor for Melissa Etheridge and Julie Cypher. “I am grieving the loss of my friend
and Bailey’s biological father, David,” Etheridge wrote on Thursday. “He gave me the gift of family.
I will forever be grateful to him, Django, and Jan. His music and legacy will inspire many generations
to come. A true treasure.”

In 1995, he reunited with his son Raymond, who he’d given up for adoption in the Sixties, and they
recorded three albums together as CPR. (Crosby’s survivors include three other children,
two daughters [Erika and Donovan] and son Django, the only child of his marriage with Dance.)

Crosby maintained a sense of humor about his troubled past. When he angered the recovery community
by admitting he smoked pot, he joked, “Our big crime is that we eat ice cream, let’s face the truth.” He
also embraced his rep as the archetypal “Wasted Sixties Guy,” especially in his emerging acting career.
He was a hippie in 1991’s Backdraft, a bartender in 1992’s Thunderheart, and an AA sponsor in an episode
of The John Larroquette Show. (He also occasionally appeared as himself on The Simpsons.) Though
much more toned down by the 2000s, Crosby remained unapologetic in his pro-gun views. In 2004,
he pleaded guilty to criminal possession of a weapon when police found a gun and a small quantity
of marijuana in his hotel room the night after a concert in New York. He served no jail time.

Crosby, Stills, and Nash toured heavily after re-forming as the original trio in 1977. (Neil Young joined
them on lucrative reunion tours in 1974, 2000, 2002, and 2006.) But they disbanded in 2015 after
longtime friends Crosby and Nash suffered a bitter falling out. “I’m completely done with David Crosby,”
Nash told The Washington Times in 2016. “I will never talk with David Crosby again.” He never
explained the discord in any significant detail. “That’s between David and I,” Nash said. “I won’t tell
anyone about that. But I will say that the damage between us is irreparable.”

The end of CSN gave Crosby the opportunity to focus on his solo career. This new period began with
2014’s Croz, featuring Raymond among the guest musicians, and a cover photo taken by Django.
“Most guys my age would have done a covers record or duets on old material,” he told Rolling Stone
at the time. “This won’t be a huge hit. It’ll probably sell 19 copies. I don’t think kids are gonna dig it,
but I’m not making it for them. I’m making it for me. I have this stuff that I need to get off my chest.”

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  Back in the Day
Posted by: IceWizard - 01-19-2023, 09:18 PM - Forum: The Lounge - Replies (7)

Remember these guys?

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Remember These Guys

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